4x4 Yau Method Pdf Free
The Yau Method, or Yau4, not to be confused with Yau5, is a 4x4 speedsolving method proposed by Patrick Jameson but popularized and modified by Robert Yau. It can also be applied to bigger cubes.
4x4 yau method pdf free
4x4 Yau is arguably the fastest and efficient method to solve a 4x4. The Yau method was proposed in 2009 by Robert Yau, and since then has been used by most of the top speedcubers worldwide. The method is a slight variation of the standard reduction method for 4x4, which surprisingly produces a much faster and even more efficient solves.
To begin with, what is the Yau method and why is it used by so many of the top speedcubers worldwide? Well, in layman terms, the Yau method is basically a reordering of the sequence of steps that were used in the standard reduction method to solve a 4x4. To begin with, we start by solving the white and yellow centre blocks (in generality, this can be any set of opposite colours), followed by pairing any 3 of the 4 white edge pieces, and placing them appropriately as part of the white cross.
The Rubik's Revenge (also known as the 444 Rubik's Cube) is a 444 version of the Rubik's Cube. It was released in 1981. Invented by Péter Sebestény, the cube was nearly called the Sebestény Cube until a somewhat last-minute decision changed the puzzle's name to attract fans of the original Rubik's Cube. Unlike the original puzzle (and other odd-numbered puzzles like the 555 cube), it has no fixed facets: the centre facets (four per face) are free to move to different positions.
There are several methods that can be used to solve the puzzle. One such method is the reduction method, so called because it effectively reduces the 444 to a 333. Cubers first group the centre pieces of common colours together, then pair edges that show the same two colours. Once this is done, turning only the outer layers of the cube allows it to be solved like a 333 cube.
Another method is the Yau method, named after Robert Yau. The Yau method is similar to the reduction method, and it is the most common method used by speedcubers. The Yau methods starts by solving two centers on opposite sides. Three cross dedges are then solved. Next, the four remaining centers are solved. Afterwards, any remaining edges are solved. This reduces down to a 3x3x3 cube.
A method similar to the Yau method is called Hoya. It was invented by Jong-Ho Jeong. It involves the same steps as Yau, but in a different order. It starts with all centers being solved except for 2 adjacent centers. Then form a cross on the bottom, then solve the last two centers. After this, it is identical to Yau, finishing the edges, and solving the cube as a 3x3.
Some methods are designed to avoid the parity errors described above. For instance, solving the corners and edges first and the centres last would avoid such parity errors. Once the rest of the cube is solved, any permutation of the centre pieces can be solved. Note that it is possible to apparently exchange a pair of face centres by cycling 3 face centres, two of which are visually identical.
We describe an empirical study of the formation of knots in open and closed self-avoiding walks(SAWs), based on a simple model involving randomly agitated cords. The results suggest thatthe probability of a closed SAW remaining knot-free follows a similar scaling law to that foropen-ended SAWs. In particular, the process of closing a given SAW prior to random agitationsubstantially increases the probability that it will be knot-free following agitation. The resultspoint to a remedy for the well-known problem of tangling of cord, rope, headphone cables etc.The simple act of connecting the two free ends to each other, thus creating a loop, greatlyreduces the risk of such tangling. Other implications, in particular for DNA storage in cells, arebriefly discussed. Category: Condensed Matter
The main purpose of this study is to test the criterion and methods described in the article aboutNobel Prize laureates on other data.It was shown that the moments of birth of Nobel Prize laureates satisfy the so-called Quaoarcriterion much more often than other moments. A random moment of time satisfies the criterionwith probability around 0.245, but among the Nobel laureates 33.47% satisfy the criterion.Because there are 726 persons in five categories, this is a statistically significant deviation: 243 ofthem satisfy, while the mean value is 177.352, and the standard deviation is 11.535. Shape of thedistribution is "bell curve". It was observed that deviation is higher if all laureates in Chemistryand Physics are excluded. +6.145 stdev if only 391 laureates in the remaining three categoriesare considered: Literature, Physiology/Medicine, Peace prize. Category: Astrophysics
The primordial role of gravitation is to supply negative energy during the "Creation Event", so that the Cosmos may be born from a condition of zero net energy. All latter-day gravitational conservation roles are derived from and reflect this primordial energy-conserving role.Gravity has two primary conservation roles in today's universe: 1) entropy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths), and 2) symmetry conservation (at high gravitational field strengths). Entropy conservation is accomplished by the gravitational annihilation of space, exposing a metrically equivalent temporal residue. The annihilation of space converts the expansive spatial entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light), to the expansive historical entropy drive of bound energy (the intrinsic motion of time). The implicit temporal drive of spatial expansion (recognized as the time component of "spacetime") is converted to (and conserved as) the explicit temporal drive of history - via gravity. Symmetry conservation is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Sunlight indicates the completion of a symmetry conservation cycle: light - matter - light, which begins with the conversion of light to matter (free to bound electromagnetic energy) during the "Big Bang", and ends with the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars. Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
How much can physics explain? "Event-Symmetric Space-Time" presents a startlingly integrated world view from the forefront of physics. So often we read about the new quantum paradigm which has replaced the old mechanistic philosophy of physics, but seldom do we find "what the paradigm is" spelt out so succinctly. "The universe is made of stories, not of atoms." (Muriel Rukeyser) This is the storyteller's point of view. Through a literal interpretation of those words we transcend causality and determinism to see the quantum multiverse as a whole.Throughout this book, the author returns to the principle of event symmetry - in particle physics, in cosmology, in superstring theory, in epistemology. Coupled to the storyteller's paradigm this new idea of philosophy and physics dares to free us from the constraints of our intuition, to reveal natures truths. We are in the midst of a revolution in our understanding of physics and the universe. This new interpretation of superstring theory is slowly helping to bring physicists' long search for the holy grail of knowledge to fruition.At the debut of the twentieth century Einstein revealed how the laws of nature are independent of any co-ordinate system. According to general relativity, no matter how a reference frame of space-time is turned, pulled and stretched, the laws of physics remain the same because gravity keeps track of the changes. Einstein's only restriction was that he did not allow space-time to tear. You cannot cut out two pieces of space-time and swap them over expecting the forces of nature to compensate, or can you? Research attempting to form a theory of quantum gravity suggests that space-time can tear and reconnect in ways which change its topology. This book suggests that Einstein's symmetry must be extended to allow space-time to be atomised into space-time events which can be pulled apart and recombined in any permutation. The unified forces of nature must permit this "event symmetry" just as gravity already permits the more restricted co-ordinate transformations. Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) energy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths) for bound forms of energy, via the creation of time, history, and matter's temporal entropy drive; 2) symmetry conservation (at stellar and higher gravitational field strengths) via the conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, supernovas, quasars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These secondary conservation roles, manifesting as the gravitational conversion of space to time and bound to free energy, are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and entropy via the contraction, heating, and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the positive energy and entropy of light. Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (orthe metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws. In matter,light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetriesare protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All formsof energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of thelight which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a doubleconservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return thematerial system to its original symmetric state, repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts.Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including:chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle andproton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of blackholes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges andforces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are thesymmetry debts of light. Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory 350c69d7ab